Saltpeter Collector (Salpetersjudare) Important job for manufacturing gunpowder

saltpeter1Krigskollegium Artilleridepartementet F2a:2 (1764-1804) Image 212 (AID: v50440.b212, NAD: SE/KrA/0003) Link.

Occasionally at conferences in North America, a customer has asked,” I have an ancestor who was a salpetersjudare?  What is that occupation?” It is a saltpeter collector or sometimes referred to as saltpeter maker.

As the Swedish army increasingly used rifles and cannons, there was a great need for gunpowder. Gunpowder consisted of 75% saltpeter. Large concentrations of saltpeter were found in the soil under farm buildings and stables. Since saltpeter was so important in the production of gunpowder, it came to be that the soil under many farm buildings was declared to be royal property. In the beginning the farmers collected and delivered the saltpeter themselves, but soon a new profession was created, saltpeter collectors.

The saltpeter collectors traveled around to the farms and dug up the floors of the barns or stables and collected the soil and then boiled and seethed it for about six or seven days. Then the pure saltpeter was transported to the gunpowder factory where gunpowder was produced.

In the series Krigskollegium Artilleridepartementet, there are three volumes with muster rolls for the saltpeter collectors or makers (salpetersjudarna) from 1693 – 1805. These muster rolls are organized in the same way as the ones for cavalrymen and soldiers.

To search for these archives enter the search words: Krigskollegium Artilleridepartementet in the search box.

The image at the top of the page is the muster roll for the saltpeter collectors of Skåne and Blekinge counties. The mustering was held on the 29th of April 1778.

salpeter2Krigskollegium Artilleridepartementet F2a:1 (1693-1757) Image 92 (AID: v50439.b92, NAD: SE/KrA/0003) Link.

Sometimes you will find more information about a person who was a saltpeter collector. In the above image you see in the third row Anders Erichsson from Lerdala parish in Skaraborg county. He was born in 1699 and became a saltpeter collector in 1721. On the right side there is a note giving more information about him.

Siuk af et hug i wänstra knäet och bewitnades af des Cammerater at wara oduglig. Recommenderas till afskied, medan han och intet kunnat giöra något arbete för åhr 1726.

Disabled by a stab in the left knee and testimony by his comrades stated that he was unfit. Recommended for discharge, meanwhile he wasn’t able to work in 1726.

Read blog entry in Swedish.

ArkivDigital

New Records in ArkivDigital

Produktkatalog

During the past month, many new records have been added to ArkivDigital’s online library. A summary of the highlights follows.

Estate Inventories (Bouppteckningar)
The estate inventories for all of Sweden up to 1860 have been available in ArkivDigital for some time as well as the estate inventories between 1860 and 1900 except for Jämtland county. We have now begun to add these records for Jämtland and a small number are now available in the online library. We will continue to add more.

New estate inventory volumes for the years 1901-1960 have been added for most counties. The estate inventories up to 1945 are now available for Blekinge, Halland, Kristianstad and Malmöhus counties.

Military Records
A large number of volumes for the soldier rolls “Rullor 1620-1723” have been added. With the exception of some individual volumes, the soldier rolls between 1620-1647 are now completely available.

Kansas and Åland
In our previous blog about new records in ArkivDigital, we mentioned that we were photographing church books from Kansas in the USA as well as seamen house records from Åland, Finland.  Many new volumes have been added for both of these record sets and more will be added in the near future.

Link to blog in Swedish.

ArkivDigital

Estate Inventories (Bouppteckningar) Status Update

estateinventoryupdateOctober
Göteborgs rådhusrätt och magistrat. Första avdelningen efter 1901. EIIIa:150 (1930-1930) Image 500 / page 547 (AID: v562001.b500.s547, NAD: SE/GLA/14055) Link.

After the church books, the estate inventories (bouppteckningar), are probably the most valuable source for many genealogists.  The estate inventories provide genealogical information as well as help one gain a better understanding of one’s ancestor’s life. The estate inventory details the assets and debts of the deceased person’s estate.

For some time now, the estate inventories from earliest times to 1900 have been available in ArkivDigital’s online library.  The one exception has been Jämtland county where the records between 1861 and 1900 have not been added. However, we will be adding these records in the near future.

For the period 1901-1960, we have reached different milestones in various parts of the country.  Below is a summary of what estate inventories are now available by county followed by a summary of the volumes we are currently photographing. There may be single copies missing in each county in cases where the original records were in such poor physical condition that they could not be photographed.

Estate Inventories (Bouppteckningar) available in ArkivDigital:
1917: Stockholm city.
1920: Göteborg och Bohus, Jönköping, Kalmar, Kopparberg, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Skaraborg, Södermanland, Uppsala, Västernorrland, Västmanland, Älvsborg, Örebro, Östergötland.
1930: Gävleborg, Västerbotten.
1940: Blekinge, Halland, Jämtland, Kristianstad, Malmöhus, Stockholm county (exception Stockholm city, see above).
1945: Värmland, Gotland.

Photographing in progress for the following:
1918-1940: Stockholm city.
1921-1930: Göteborg och Bohus, Jönköping, Kalmar, Kopparberg, Kronoberg, Skaraborg, Södermanland, Uppsala, Västmanland, Älvsborg, Örebro, Östergötland.
1921-1940: Norrbotten, Västernorrland.
1931-1940: Gävleborg, Västerbotten.
1941-1945: Blekinge, Halland, Kristianstad, Malmöhus.
1946-1950: Värmland.
1946-1960: Gotland.

ArkivDigital

New Records Added to ArkivDigital

Produktkatalog
During June and July, many new records have been added to ArkivDigital’s online library. We have begun to add some new record types, continued to add estate inventories (bouppteckningar) and completed the photographing of a couple record sets.

SCB Extracts
The first set of new materials that we are beginning to add are the Statistiska centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden) or SCB extracts from the birth, marriage and death books. The SCB extracts are transcriptions from the original church books but not all the information from the original books was transferred to the extracts. The advantage with the SCB extracts is that we are able to publish these up to 1944. Because of the law of privacy we are seldom able to add the original books up to this date. We have added most of the records to ArkivDigital for 1944. We will then work our ways backward to publish as many SCB extracts to fill in the gaps where we do not have the original books.

The easiest way to search for the SCB extracts is to enter “SCB” in the search box. The volumes are organized by county thus requiring one to browse through the book to find the correct parish. We plan to begin the indexing of these books so that it will be easy to locate each parish.

“Stamkort” for Military Conscripts
The second set of new records that we are beginning to add is the service card (stamkort) for each military conscript.   Each conscript or serviceman had his own “stamkort” where you will find information about his service beginning with his enrollment, usually between 20 and 21 years of age, up to his discharge which normally happened at age 47.  Currently, only a small number of volumes are available in ArkivDigital. However, we plan to add the service cards or “stamkort” for all men who were enrolled between the years 1902 and 1941.

The simplest way to search for the stamkort in ArkivDigital is to enter “stamkort” in the search box. You will be directed to a page where you will find more information about the stamkort  in the info box. Currently this information is in Swedish.

Estate Inventories (Bouppteckningar)
We continue to prioritize adding estate inventories (bouppteckningar) beginning in 1900 and forward. During the last two months, new volumes were added for most counties.

Completed Projects
We have now completed projects for photographing the prison lists for all of Sweden from the Office of the Chancellor of Justice and also the Supreme Court protocols. The prison lists from the Office of Chancellor of Justice are available for the period 1750-1825 and the Supreme Court protocols are available for the period 1694-1800.

Read more about our image database.

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Household record search and reading example

In a previous blog, we searched for the birth record of Elin Andersdotter who was born on the 13th of July 1841 in Västra Torsås parish in Kronoberg county.  In the birth record, we discovered her parents were Anders Nilsson and Ingrid Magnisdotter and that they resided at a place in the parish named Långasten.

Today, we will search for the family in the household records. Each pastor was required to take a yearly accounting of all members in his parish and test them for their religious understanding. In order to do this accounting, the minister made lists of all the people living in the parish, household by household. These records were kept in large books and each volume covers a series of years.  The number of years vary by parish and time. Many of these books begin in the late 1700’s but they do exist earlier for some parishes. By using the household records and congregation books, one can often trace a person from birth to death or birth to emigration.

search for household record

To search for the household records for 1841:

  • Return to the archive for Västra Torsås as shown in the above image.
  • Search for a household records volume that includes 1841.
  • Highlight the book Västra Torsås AI:6 1840-1847.
  • Double click and open the book.
  • Look for a place name index (ortsregister). This is usually in the front of the book but sometimes is in the back. Not all household records books have an index. In those cases you will need to page through the book to locate the place.

place name indexVästra Torsås AI:6 (1840-1847) Image 8 (AID: v21256.b8, NAD: SE/VALA/00453) Link.

  • Search for the Elin’s residence, Långasten, in the place name index and you see that the records for this place begin on page 396 and 401 as shown in the above image.
  • Go to page 396 and begin your search for the family.

household imageVästra Torsås AI:6 (1840-1847) Image 409 / page 396 (AID: v21256.b409.s396, NAD: SE/VALA/00453) Link.

You will find the family on page 396. In the first column on the top line is the place name, No. 69 Långasten. The first column shows the family member names living in the household during the period the book covers.

The major column headings on this household record are:

  • Födelse  –  Birth
  • Flyttningar – Moving (Moves in and out)
  • Läser  –   Read
  • Nattvardsgång -  Communion
  • Husförhör – Household examination
  • Omständigheter – Special circumstances or special remarks

Under the birth (födelse) column you will see the sub-columns, dag, år and ort which respectively mean day, year and place. In these columns, you will find the birth dates and birth places for each member of the household. In this case you notice that only the birth year is shown for the father while complete birth dates are shown for the rest of the family.

Below is a list of all the household members’ names and birth dates:

Name                                      Birth Date
B. M. Anders Nilssson           1798  (B. is an abbreviation for bonde or famer; M. – husband)
H. Ingjerd Magnisdotter      13 April 1797 (H. is an abbreviation for hustru or wife)
o ä D. Stina Johansdotter     11 March 1820 (Ingjerd’s illegitimate daughter)
o ä S. Magus Olsson               28 April 1845 (Stina’s illegitimate son)
S. Nils Andersson                     7 November 1827 (S. is the abbreviation for son)
D. Ingrid                                  28 January 1830 (D. is the abbreviation for daughter)
D. Catherina                            24 December 1838
D. Elin                                       13 July 1841

Usually, you will find the name of the parish in the birth place column. Sometimes, it will be a village name or sometimes the county name or a country. But in most cases, it is the parish name. In this case there is no entry and that usually but not always means the birth was recorded in the same parish as the household record so in this case, Västra Torsås. We do know that is true for Elin’s birth record. To search for the birth records for other members in the family, we should first look for their birth records in Västra Torsås.

The moving in and moving out columns (flyttningar) are very important columns. The columns indicate if the person has moved into or out of this place during the period the household records book covers or in this case 1840-1847.  The moving in columns include the year (år) and from location (ifrån) and the moving to columns are year (år) and to place (till).

You will notice that there is an entry in the moving to column for Stina Johansdotter and her son Magnus Olsson. It states that they moved to a place that is shown on page 373 in the same book in 1848. Also, you will note their names are crossed out. A cross out indicates a person has moved or died.  In order to find them at their new residence, go to page 373 in the same book. You will find them at the following reference in ArkivDigital:  Västra Torsås AI:6 (1840-1847) Image 386 / page 373 (AID: v21256.b386.s373, NAD: SE/VALA/00453) Link.

There are no entries in the moving in or moving out columns for the other members of the household. Since there are no notations of a move, we can assume that they lived in the same place, No. 69 Långasten, in the previous household records book and in the subsequent one.  We can trace the family both backwards and forward by looking for the place, Långasten, in the place name index in the previous and subsequent household records books and look for the family in the same manner as we did in this book.

The last column, Omständigheter or special circumstances, can offer some additional information about your ancestor. In this case, you will see the following noted for Stina Johansdotter:

Transcription
Lysn. d. 6/5 48  med Torp. Jöns Svensson

Translation
Banns of marriage date 6 of May 1848 for marriage with Torpare (Crofter) Jöns Svensson

Click here for more information about household records plus a record example in the Swedish genealogy section of our website.

ArkivDigital

Swedish soldiers captured at Poltava – What can one discover about them?

After the Swedish defeat at Poltava in 1709, many members of the Swedish army were captured and imprisoned in Russia. Is it possible to find information about the individual prisoners?

The short answer is yes. For those who are interested about war prisoners during the 1700’s, we recommend that you take a look at the archive:  ”Krigshandlingar Stora nordiska kriget: Krigsfångar” or “War Documents of the Great Northern War: War Prisoners”.  Note that there are two archives with the same name but they include different volumes.

We want to especially point out the two name register volumes: Reg:1 and Reg:2. These records cover admittedly only a portion of the volumes that we photographed, but they are still of great value since one is able to find a reference to a number of volumes and pages for most persons. Register LarsKrigshandlingar Stora nordiska kriget: Krigsfångar Reg:1 (0-9999) Image 791 (AID: v787880.b791, NAD: SE/KrA/038814B)  Link.

Above is the index card for First Lieutenant Lars Gröning. The first reference, I: 39, refers to the volume 14B: 1, page 39.  Lars is found in a roll that shows all of the prisoners in Russia from the Battle of Poltava. On this page, it notes that Lars was held a prisoner in Tobolsk, a city in western Siberia.  You will find Lars in the middle of the page on the right in the image below. lars page 39Krigshandlingar Stora nordiska kriget: Krigsfångar 14B:1 (0-9999) Image 270 / page 39 (AID: v787699.b270.s39, NAD: SE/KrA/038814B) Link.

On July 14, 1722, Lars returned home to Sweden. This information appears in volume 14B:3, page 20 which the reference III: 20 on the index card refers to.  Lars is shown in the image below.

Lars page 20 Krigshandlingar Stora nordiska kriget: Krigsfångar 14B:3 (0-9999) Image 290 / page 20 (AID: v787701.b290.s20, NAD: SE/KrA/038814B) Link.

By following the other references listed on the index card, we can find additional information about the long stay Lars involuntarily spent in Tobolsk.

Click here to see original article in Swedish.

ArkivDigital

Passports – Not Only for International Travel

Up until 1860 a passport was required in Sweden for both domestic and international travel.  For a person traveling to another place in Sweden where he or she was not known, a passport was required and it needed to be shown if someone asked to see it. These passports were recorded in passport journals (passjournaler).

We have photographed some of these passport journals for Blekinge, Gotland, Gävleborg and Västernorrland counties.  You can find these passport journals by going to ArkivDigital’s online search window, clicking on advanced options, and selecting the archive type, country cabinet (landskansli).  We have also published name indexes for the passport journals for Gävleborg and Västernorrland counties.

For Gävleborg, you will find the passport journals in the volumes named passport journals and you will find name indexes for these journals in the volumes named registers.  If you select Gävleborg läns landskansli, you will find the name indexed registers for the years 1767 – 1858 in the PassReg. Volumes 1 to 10.

gavle name imageGävleborgs läns landskansli PassReg:10 (1842-1858) Image 460 / page 83 (AID: v638342.b460.s83, NAD: SE/HLA/1030001)  Link

Above is an example from one of the Gävleborg’s name indexed registers.   In the above image, we can see that Carl Erik Frunk received a passport granting him and wife Brita Kristina Hillgren permission to travel from their home in Gävle to a neighboring city, Söderhamn.  You can see the original record in the volume f0r 1850 on page 189 or at the following reference:  Gävleborgs läns landskansli BXIIIa:10a (1842-1858) Image 1000 / page 189 (AID: v637649.b1000.s189, NAD: SE/HLA/1030001)  Link

In Västernorrland you will find passport journals and here the volumes are named passliggare instead of passport journals and the name indexes are in the register volumes.

In addition we have photographed passport journals for Blekinge and Gotland counties but these are not name indexed. For Gotland, we have photographed passport applications (passansökningar)  as well as incoming passport journals (inkomma pass).

The image below shows a passport that was received in Gotland from Kalmar county. The image shows a maid (pigan) Carin Larsdotter from Bredsättra parish on Öland who received permission to travel to Gotland to seek service work (tjänst).  In addition the passport states that her age is 19: she has blue eyes, dark hair, a straight nose, an ordinary mouth and chin and is short in stature.

kalmar pass

Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län, Landskansliet EXa:13 (1837-1839) Image 1330 (AID: v482151.b1330, NAD: SE/ViLA/20146)  Link

ArkivDigital

Via Handelsaffär (A General Store) in Hackvad

ArkivDigital is much more than just church books. We have many types of records that can help you gain a better understanding of how your ancestor lived.  One interesting source is an accounts book for the general store (Via Handelsaffär) in Hackvad in Örebro county. In our online library, you will find an account book for the years 1882-1886. Karl Johan Nilsson, the shopkeeper of Via Handelsaffär, recorded the names of all who shopped at the store listing the items purchased and the amounts paid.  So, if you happen to have ancestors who lived near Hackvad at this time; you may have ancestors who shopped in this store.

Hackvad Journal

Via Handelsaffär, Hackvad Journal:1 (1882-1886) Image 80 / page 12 (AID: v785801.b80.s12)  Link

In the above image, we can see that the farmhand (drängen) Joh. Emil Carlsson purchased the following items on the 2nd of February 1883:

  • rakknif (shaver)
  • borste (brush)
  • tvål (soap)

On the 10th of February, he purchased 6 pairs of socks (par strumpor).

Also, you can find some pictures of Karl Johan Nilsson and Via Handelsaffär in the volume, Via Handelsaffär, Hackvad Historik:1.

You can find these volumes, by using the advanced search function in ArkivDigital online and selecting archive type, private archives.  Then select the archive, Via Handelsaffär, Hackvad.

ArkivDigital

Latest Product Catalog

As of today, ArkivDigital online offers more than 49,8 million images and we are getting close to a big jubilee.

In August, we updated the product catalog. Have you taken a look at it yet?

In the product catalog you get an overview of our digital archive; it lets you take a closer look at what materials we have from specific counties and time periods. You can also see what materials we will be filming within the nearest future.

Go directly to the product catalog (pdf-link).


Remember this:

The product catalog is meant to give an overview of the material available in ArkivDigital online. Even if a material is listed as finished, there can still be some volumes missing, for example due to books being too damaged to photograph. Furthermore, we also have a large range of materials photographed which are not listed in the product catalog. If we listed every single volume, the catalog would be too extensive.

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